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Which field tends to show the largest problem with reproducibility in study results?
Individuals who showed greater resistance to changing their beliefs showed greater activity in what regions of the brain?
Collagen is a complete protein source.
Which of the following is not an example of ad libitum dieting?
Scientifically who tends to eat 35% faster?
Slower eating speed will very likely lower energy intake in overweight/obese population.
The breakpoint (no further change in the oxidation of the indicator amino acid, indicating a plateau in protein synthesis) was at a protein dose of ________.
The most concrete/measurable aspect of keto adaptation is an increase in fat oxidation (indicated by a drop in respiratory quotient) and a plateauing of increased fat oxidation occurs within what time frame of starting a ketogenic diet?
Large LDL particles are unlikely to be artherogenic.
Trunk strength plays a major role in athletic performance.
Squats and deadlifts likely don‘t provide sufficient stimulus to train the anterior and lateral core.
High-intensity resistance training with moderate volume (6-9 sets per muscle group) has been shown to reduce glycogen stores by roughly what percentage?
Trained subjects in a fed-state can benefit from carbohydrate consumption (6-8% solution such as Gatorade) when the exercise bout exceeds ____ minutes.
The lower chronic total daily carbohydrate intake is the greater the ergogenic potential of timing carbohydrate near/during training to offset waning glycogen stores. Conversely, the higher the total daily intake, the less effect intraworkout carbohydrate intake would have on resistance training performance – especially fed-state training performance.
Which athlete/s would most likely benefit the most from intraworkout carbohydrates?
The activity level associated with a given job is predictive of the rate of obesity throughout that occupation.
A couch potato would average about ____ calories less in TDEE than an extremely active homo sapien.
One cannot replete glycogen post-workout without carbohydrate intake.
The glycemic index of sucrose is ______ and the glycemic load is ______.
It appears that added sugar intakes of up to ____ of total kcals do not pose any meaningful concern.
Fat gain from an excess of calories will stay within a 10% inter-individually.
Who is going to likely gain less fat with larger caloric surpluses?
If you are trying to limit fat gain during a surplus it is best to keep weight gain between ______ percent of total body weight per month.
If we maintain our current animal product consumption U.S. (about 225 lb of meat/fish and about 213 lb of dairy per person per year) without any detrimental impact on the environment we would need to reduce our population by ____ percent.
Monogastric animals (e.g., pigs, chickens, rabbits, turkeys, etc.) are responsible for less green house gas emissions than ruminant animals
On average, one calorie of animal product requires ____ of water to produce.
What is the largest irrigated crop in America?
Land surface that is too dry, steep, hot or cold to grow crops directly for human consumption is a prime opportunity for livestock to convert existing vegetation into food and energy. However, we can only support _____ of the current livestock population on these kinds of lands.
Over 40,000 edible plants exist, yet more than half of the world’s calories come from which crops.
In animals and in the presence of glucose, D-β-hydroxybutyrate ______ insulin secretion.
If your goal is muscle hypertrophy how many sets per week is the minimum per muscle group per week?
Training near failure becomes critical once you get above what number of repetitions?
BCAAs competitively inhibits transport of what amino acid across the blood-brain barrier?
When protein and calories are equated, a wide-ranging variation in carbohydrate and fat proportion can work similarly well in the pursuit of goals oriented toward improving body composition in the context of a progressive resistance training.
Quasi experiments differ from true experiments in that people are randomly assign to an experimental group.
Observational studies do not involve any systematic manipulation of the variables of interest.
A confounding variable
What experimental design allows for definitive conclusions about causality in health research?
Outliers usually do not have much of an effect on study outcomes.
An inappropriate sample size can lead to what type of errors?
Even tests with a very small effect size can reach statistical significance with _____ samples in order to have sufficient statistical power to detect them.
An effect size of .5 is considered?
The performance decrement in response to ketogenic diets is likely due to a down-regulation of what enzyme?
It has been proposed that over _____ of deaths from diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease could be prevented if people simply ate a healthy diet, maintained a reasonable weight, exercised and abstained from smoking.
Which of the following is not a mastery goal?
__________ norms describe behaviors people engage in whereas _________ norms describe whether an individual perceives that his or her behavior is approved or disapproved.
Attitudes and intentions have less power to predict ________ behaviors.
Following the saying, “eat like a king in the morning, a prince at lunch, and a pauper at dinner” will lead to improved weight loss results.
A confounding variable is independent of the two variables yet exerts impacts on both of them separately.
In the research literature, the most commonly cited population-wide nutritional shortcomings among vegans are:
For individuals on the thyroid medication (Synthroid), soy intake can necessitate increases in the effective dose of the drug.
Reductions in dietary fat from approximately 40% to ___% resulted in significant reductions in testosterone levels, thus it would make sense to stay above ___% most of the time if indeed the goal is increasing or maintaining androgen status.
According to the meta-analysis of available RCTs, increasing intakes of whole grains instead of refined grains will lower your cardiovascular disease risk.
Intermittent energy restriction may mitigate adaptive thermogenesis.
Which protein is more insulinogenic?
Which protein is more satiating?
External validity is the extent of which the study measured what it set out to.
_________ bias involves variables that can “mask” the real associations or to create ones when they don‘t really exist.
Which of the following would not be categorized as an ultra-processed food?
Ketone supplementation pre-exercise will generally increase performance and power output in cycling races.
The main driver of LBM loss during a marked energy deficit in young overweight men is a significant _____________.
Which type of fat is easier to lose?
More recent analysis finds that whether or not HRT is a problem has to do with when it is started and the age at which it is used. Started shortly after menopause and only used for a handful of years, it is very safe. Used for extended periods or in much older women it is not.
Fat cells in breast tissue contain increased amounts of aromatase.
In women who do go on HRT, have ___ kcal drop in RMR per year after menopause. Women who don‘t go on HRT have ___ kcal drop in RMR per year after menopause.
Training volume seems to impact strength gains to the same relative degree that it impacts hypertrophy.
Which type of training will result in an increase in Type IIx fibers relative to Type IIa fibers?
It’s currently unknown whether the decreased energy intake in response to a ketogenic diet is more attributable to elevated ketone levels per se, or merely a decrease dietary variety & palatability. It could be a combination of both, but these nuances are yet to be systematically investigated.
Whole-body protein synthesis is reflective of muscle-specific protein synthesis and will parallel one another.
Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice will enhance satiety to the same level as eating an apple.
Higher fat diets generally lead to positive changes in the gut microbiome.
BPA exposure causes most harm
If BPA or other endocrine disruptors have contributed to your anxiety, the majority of damage can be reversed by removing BPA and using DMSA.
There is evidence to support the increased consumption of which of the following in those with anxiety disorders?
When total work volume was equated, resistance training programs involving multi joint exercises compared to single joint exercises appear to be more efficient for improving what qualities?
What is likely the lowest carbohydrate consumption that the general population maintain long-term?