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Very low calorie diets are categorized as being under what caloric threshold?
On average, without resistance training, what percentage of weight lost on a very low calorie will be lean muscle mass?
What was the most common complaint on a very low calorie diet.
Most is the most satiating macronutrient?
If healthy person is undertaking weight loss while undergoing intense training is probably best to keep their protein consumption above what threshold per day?
Intermittent fasting protocol consistently outperforms continuous caloric restriction in terms of weight loss outcomes.
Research findings, if applied in practice are best seen as relatively objective starting points from which to make changes if necessary.
Glutamine supplementation has been found to be consistent ergogenic aids?
Resistance training is positively related to all-cause mortality due to increased rick of CVD.
Worst case scenario, how much muscle could you lose on a 24 hour fast?
Muscle is ____% water by mass and adipose tissue is ____%
Intracellular fluid is higher in _______ &________, whereas extracellular fluid is higher in _______ &________.
The human body can maximally absorb about how many ounces of water in an hour?
Athletes will fatigue faster at temperatures below 40o F and above 88o F.
Electrolytes are not really that important when it comes to rehydration.
What percentage of Americans don’t even meet the RDA for magnesium?
What percentage of Americans don’t meet the RDA for potassium?
It’s feasible that someone could lose weight and gain lean body mass just from eating a higher protein diet.
Breakfast is the most important meal of the day.
Ketogenic diets consistently outperform non-ketogenic diets in reducing body fat and bodyweight under protein and energy matched conditions.
Muscle contributes what percentage of whole-body protein turnover
Exercise and protein intake have a much larger effect on muscle protein synthesis compared to breakdown.
You need very high amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and insulin to inhibit muscle protein breakdown.
A single peer-reviewed scientific publication
Men are better at converting plant based ALA to EPA and DHA
Who most likely needs higher intakes of DHA?
High fat low carb dietary protocols MAY be advantageous for what type of athlete?
Submaximal endurance performance cannot be sustained without carbohydrate intake?
Maximal intensity work would not be compromised on a ketogenic diet?
A ketogenic diet would likely lead to a decrement in what activity/ies?
The most thermogenic adaptation to weight loss takes place in
What two tactics would likely be critical to implement with those under severe caloric restriction?
High rep low weight training will predominantly target…
A high fat diet cannot cause insulin resistance.
Fruit and vegetable intake has convincing evidence for the prevention of which of these diseases?
If one doesn’t like vegetables can they just supplement with a greens powder and call it even?
What are the three symptoms related to the female athlete triad?
Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual cycle for
What is the lower limit of body fat percentage for obtaining regular changes in androgens to estrogens and estradiol?
For a 60 kilo female at 20% body fat, what is the critical energy availability (energy intake – energy expenditure) threshold?
Which would likely be preferable for long-term weight maintenance?
It is common to see multiple t-tests run in recent publications.
If your goal is purely muscle hypertrophy you would likely want to avoid going how long between higher protein meals?
The necessity of hitting the anabolic window may be higher if the athlete?
From a physiological standpoint, it is probably best not to go below this level of fat intake?
Portion size has no influence on how many calories will be consumed.
The larger the food variety the more food will be consumed.
The majority of the benefit from periodization comes from
It is highly probable that the best patterns, time frames, and loading schemes validly apply across all training contexts.
Caliper body comp measurements in men even with a competent experienced measurer tend to
During a ketogenic diet you will see a decrease in RQ and thus an increase in body fat oxidation.
Hip thrusts are a worthless exercise with zero carry over to anything.
Performing more than 20 reps is also completely useless.
At what point will you stop seeing benefit in hypertrophy from added volume?
What macronutrient can permit tryptophan into the brain?
Ketosis tends to promote better sleep?
It is likely best to refrain from eating
Exogenous ketones and the ketogenic diet do the exact same thing.
Type 2 diabetes can be completely reversed without drugs.
What strategies would improve glucose control in type 2 diabetics?
What is the BMI of a 6 foot 1 male, 10% body fat at 205 pounds?
What is the BMI of a 6 foot male, 26% body fat at 182 pounds?
Alternate day fasting will likely result in more beneficial changes in glucose metabolism as compared to continuous caloric restriction.
Planned systematic deviations from a diet may be helpful in attaining and maintaining long-term results.
After consuming protein muscle protein synthesis peaks
What is the minimum dose of leucine to stimulate muscle protein synthesis?
Who needs more protein to elevate muscle protein synthesis?
The ideal protein intake and distribution for a client trying to gain lean mass would be
Who is at greater risk for over-training?
It is a good idea for a client to train through and illness and sweat it out.
One should recover from overreaching in no more than?
In overtaining what are the first qualities to depreciate?
The optimal solution for overtraining syndrome is to prevent it from happening.
You should be cautious raising volume quickly by more than
What mineral could play a role in restless leg syndrome?
Vitamin D only has receptors in the brain and is now regarded as a steroid hormone.
Vitamin D is neuroprotective of what kind of neurons?
Iron deficiency has been found to be related to impaired fat and fat soluble vitamin absorption.
In pregnancy, iron requirements go up ______ and ______ for folate.
Intermittent fasting may result in a reduction in Fat mass in trained subjects even when calories are held constant. However, what values have been found to drop with intermittent fasting?
Which macronutrient has the most profound effect on leptin levels and may negatively impact hunger, but will not likely result in a significant increase in energy expenditure?
Total body glycogen storage is about
Characteristics of an eating disorder are
We should encourage dieting in teenagers.
There are multiple vitamins, minerals, and herbs that help the body’s ability to detoxify.
People lose weight on detoxes because their body is ridding itself of chemicals and chemicals are stored in fat.
DXA measurements of body fat will usually be _____ higher than calipers
Which organs burn more calories than skeletal muscle?
For an obese client what kind of drop could they expect to see in their total daily energy expenditure after 10 pounds of weight loss?
For a very lean individual trying get exceptionally lean what kind of drop could they expect to see in their total daily energy expenditure after 10 pounds of weight loss?
Early evening training will automatically result in a loss in sleep.
Athletes usually sleep less on nights prior to early morning training.
Light is more powerful than exercise in inducing shifts in circadian rhythms.
A low carb high fat diet will allow those who are overweight or obese to lose more visceral and liver fat than a higher carb lower fat diet.
Intra-workout carbohydrate intake after an overnight fast for maximizing performance in high intensity and strength/conditioning activities needs to be extremely high to invoke any benefit.
What is the rate limiting enzyme in glycogenolysis?
Increasing sodium intake before a bodybuilding show could increase one’s pump.
Which population will likely be more responsive to protein supplementation?
Reducing protein intake will make you live longer – for sure!
What is the optimal daily dose of protein to prevent sarcopenia in older humans?
Gary Taubes is reputable source for nutritional information.
Thirst isn’t perceived until what percentage of water loss?